John Buchan - 1927 - Witch Wood - Glossary



* adj—adjective
* adv—adverb
* conj—conjunction
* dim—diminutive
* interj—interjetion
* lit—literally
* n—noun
* pp—past participle
* pres p—present participle
* prep—preposition
* pron—pronoun
* v—verb

A', aw (adj)—All.

A'body, awbodie (n)—Everyone, everybody.

Abune (adv/prep)—Above, over.

Ae (adj)—One; the only.

Ahint (adv/prep)—Behind.

Aiblins (adv)—Perhaps, maybe.

Ain (adj)—Own.

Aince (adv)—Once.

Aiple, aipple (n)—An apple.

Airn (n)—Iron.

Airt (n)—Direction; (v)—to aim; to direct.

Aith (n)—An oath.

Aits (n)—Oats.

Alane (adj/adv)—Alone.

Aneath (adv)—Beneath; underneath; below.

Anent (prep)—Concerning; (adj)— opposite; across from.

Antinomian (n)—One who maintains that, under the gospel dispensation, the
moral law is of no use or obligation, but that faith alone is necessary to
salvation. The sect of Antinomians originated with John Agricola, in Germany,
about the year 1535.

Aquavitty (n)—Aquavit.

Aroint, aroynt (interj)—Begone! (v) - to drive or scare off by some exclamation.

Ass, ess, yiss (n)—Ash, ashes

Assoilize (v)—To absolve or finally decide in favour of a defendant.

Asteer (adj)—Astir.

Aught, aucht, aicht (n/adj)— Eight(h).

Auld (adj)—Old.

Ayont (prep)—Beyond.

Backcast (n)—Anything which brings misfortune upon one, or causes failure in
an effort or enterprise; a reverse.

Back-end (n)—Autumn.

Back-thocht (n)—A suspicion.

Bairn (n)—A baby; a child.

Bairnly (adj)—Childish; infantile.

Baith (adj)—Both.

Bane (n)—A bone.

Bannock (n)—A kind of cake or bread, in shape flat and roundish, usually made
of oatmeal or barley meal and baked on a griddle

Barry, barrae (n)—A barrow.

Battalation (n)—A struggle.

Bauchle (n)—Originally a shabby or worn-out shoe; the term is also used to
describe a frail and careworn or shabby-looking person.

Bauld (adj)—Bold.

Baulk (n)—A beam ; also, an unploughed or uncultivated strip of land.

Bawbee (n)—Six-pence; a six-penny coin; bawbee-jo (n)—a six-penny sweatheart,
i.e., a young man hired to walk with a girl.

Bear (n)—Barley.

Begowk (v)—To deceive.

Beil, beal (v)—To fester.

Bejaunts (n)—Presumably a corruption of "beaux gens", fine folk, meaning in
this context the students at St. Andrew's College.

Beltane (n)—The Celtic name for May-day, on which also was held a festival
called by the same name, originally common to all the Celtic peoples. This
festival, the most important ceremony of which in later centuries was the
lighting of the bonfires known as "beltane fires," is believed to represent the
Druidical worship of the sun-god. The fuel was piled on a hill-top, and at the
fire the beltane cake was cooked, This was divided into pieces corresponding to
the number of those present, and one piece was blackened with charcoal. For
these pieces lots were drawn, and he who had the misfortune to get the black
bit became cailleach bealtine (the beltane carline)—a term of great reproach.
He was pelted with egg-shells, and afterwards for some weeks was spoken of as
dead. In the north-east of Scotland beltane fires were still kindled in the
latter half of the 18th century. There were many superstitions connecting them
with the belief in witchcraft. According to Cormac archbishop of Cashel about
the year 908, who furnishes in his glossary the earliest notice of beltane, it
was customary to light two fires close together, and between these both men and
cattle were driven, under the belief that health was thereby promoted and
disease warded off. The Highlanders have a proverb, "he is between two beltane
fires." Beltane, as the 1st of May, was in ancient Scotland one of the four
quarter days, the others being Hallowmas, Candlemas, and Lammas. (Source:

Benorth (adv)—(To the) north of.

Bent (n)—Grass.

Besom (n)—A broomstick; also, a hussy; a loose woman.

Bestial (n)—Livestock; domestic animals; also, animals in general.

Bide (v)—To stay; to dwell; to endure; to put up with; to tolerate.

Bield (v)—To shelter.

Bien (adj)—Properous; well-to-do; cosy; comfortable.

Biggit (pp)—Built.

Binna (v)- Be not; don't be; (conj)—unless; except.

Birk (n)—A birch-tree.

Bit (n)—A place; a piece; also, the nick of time.

Black-avised (adj)—Dark-complexioned.

Blaeberry (n)—A blueberry.

Blate (adj)—Timid; shy; hesitant.

Blaw (n/v)—Blow; blast (as of wind); boast; also, to flatter.

Bleeze, bleize (n/v)—Blaze.

Blench (v)—To flinch.

Blether (n/v)—Idle talk; babble; blather.

Blink (n)—A moment; a glance; a smile.

Blithe (adj)—Happy; contented; pleased.

Bluid (n)—Blood; (v)—to bleed.

Bodie, body (n)—A person; someone.

Bog-fire (n)—A will-o'-the-wisp.

Bodle, boddle (n)—A Scottish two-penny coin.

Bogle (n)—A hobgoblin.

Boll (n)—A Scottish measure, formerly in use: for wheat and beans it contained
four Winchester bushels; for oats, barley, and potatoes, six bushels. A boll of
meal is 140 lbs. avoirdupois; also, a measure for salt of two bushels.

Bonnet-laird—a land-owner whose estate was so small that he worked it himself
as a farmer (the term bonnet refers to his customary humble headdress).

Bonnie, bonny (adj)—Pretty; beautiful.

Boscage, boskage (n)—A mass of trees or shrubs; a thicket.

Bountith (n)—A bounty; a gratuity.

Bourtree (n)—An elder tree.

Brac (n)—A rock; a bluff.

Brae (n)—A hill(side); a slope.

Braid (adj)—Broad.

Brander (v)—To grill (on a grid-iron).

Braw (adj)—Fine; grand.

Brawly (adv)—Well; grandly.

Braxy (n)—A sheep's disease; a diseased sheep, or its mutton.

Brazen (v)—To bluff; to tell a boldfaced lie.

Breeks (n)—Trousers.

Breid (n)—Bread.

Brig (n)—A bridge.

Brimestane (n)—Brimstone.

Brither (n)—A brother.

Brock (n)—A badger.

Broo (n)—A brow; hae nae broo— to have no head for; to care or know little or
nothing about.

Brose (n)—A dish made with coarse oatmeal; a kind of porridge; also, a lump.

Browst (n)—A brewing of ale.

Bruit (n)—News; a report.

Brunt (adj/pp)—Burnt; burned.

Bucht (n)—A sheep-pen; also, a bay.

Buirdly (adj)—Muscular; well-built; strapping.

Busk (v)—To dress; to adorn; to make ready.

Buss (n)—A bush; a shrub.

Buts-and-bens (n)—Croft houses with two rooms. The "but" was the room into
which strangers and more official guests, like the church elder or the
insurance agent, were taken. The "ben" was the family room into which close
friends were invited. This is the origin of the hospitable welcome, "Come awa'

Byke (n)—A nest of bees, wasps or ants.

By-ordinar (adj)—Extra-ordinary.

Ca', caw (n/v)—Call.

Caddis-worm (n)—The aquatic larva of a caddis fly, which constructs a
protective case around itself made of silk and covered with sand or plant

Cadger (n)—A hawker.

Caird (n)—A tinker; also, a card; (v)— to scold; to abuse.

Callant (n)—A boy; a young man.

Caller (adj)—Fresh, cool; (v)—to cool.

Camceil (n)—A sloping ceiling; camceiled - having a sloping ceiling.

Camsteery, camsteirie (adj)—Errant; delinquent; unmanageable; misdirected.

Canker (v)—To infect; also, to fret.

Canny (adj)—Cautious; careful; skillful; gentle; (interj)—Be careful!

Cantrip (n)—A trick; a frolic; a jape; a magic spell.

Canty, cantie (adj)—Cosy; comfortable; merry; cheerful; happy.

Carle (n)—A man (usually old).

Cartes (n)—Playing cards.

Cateran (n)—A Highland robber; an irregular soldier.

Cauld (adj/n)—Cold.

Cauld (n)—A weir.

Certes (interj)—For sure!

Chairge (n/v)—Charge.

Change-house, chynge-house (n)—An inn; an ale-house.

Chap (v)—To strike; to knock; to chap; also, to strike a bargain.

Cheep (n/v)—Whisper; squeak; chirp.

Chief (adj)—Friendly; chief; main; primary.

Chiel(d) (n)—A young man; a fellow; a lad; a child.

Chirurgeon (n)—Surgeon; doctor.

Chuckie (n)—A chicken; a hen.

Clachan (n)—A hamlet; a village.

Claes (n)—Clothes; deid claes— burial gown; burial clothes.

Clamjamphrie (n)—A crowd; a mob; a rabble; odds and ends.

Clamjamphried (adj/pp)—Surrounded, hemmed-in; mobbed.

Clary—An aromatic Mediterranean herb (Salvia sclarea) in the mint family,
having showy violet, pink, or white flower clusters and yielding an essential
oil used as a flavoring and in perfumery. Also called clary sage.

Clash (n)—Gossip; idle talk.

Clatter (n)—Country talk, chatter; also, sharp repetitive sounds.

Clatter-vengeance (n)—A tittle-tattler, a chatterbox, a blabber-mouth.

Claught, claucht (pp)—Grasped, grabbed. Claught by the Deil and awa'
wi'.—Snatched by the Devil and spirited away.

Claver (n/v )—Gossip, chatter.

Cleading, claeding (n)—Clothing.

Clout, cloot (n)—A (piece of) cloth, a rag.

Clype (v)—To tell tales; to gossip; to snitch; (n)—a tell-tale; a gossip.

Cog, cogie, coggie (n)—A wooden bowl or dish; a pail.

Collogue (v)—To chat; to confer in whispers; to be in league; (n)—a
conference; a whispered conversation; a private interview.

Cornet (o' horse) (n)—A troop of cavalry (so called from being accompanied by
a cornet player); the lowest grade of commissioned officer in a British cavalry

Corp (n)—A body, a corpse.

Corpus Evangelicorum—The Protestant League created by Gustavus Adolphus, King
of Sweden (1611-32).

Cot, cot-house (n)—A farm cottage.

Cotter, cottar (n)—A tenant occupying a farm cottage, sometimes with a small
plot of land, in return for labouring on the farm; cottar land—land attachd to
a cottage.

Coup, cowp (v)—To overturn; to upset; also, to trade; to coup the crans—to
upset the barrels, i.e., to be the last straw; to upset the apple-cart.

Couthy (adj)—Agreeable, pleasant, comfortable.

Cowe (v)—To terrify; to keep under; to lop; cowe a'—to crown everything; to be
the lat straw.

Covenanter (n) A Scottish Presbyterian who supported either of two agreements,
the National Covenant of 1638 or the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643,
intended to defend and extend Presbyterianism.

Crack (v)—To talk; to chatter; (n)— news; a flaw.

Craig (n)—Neck; throat; also, a crag.

Cran (n)—An iron tripod for hanging cooking pots over a fire; a trivet; also,
a barrel.

Craw (n/v)—Crow.

Creel (n)—A basket.

Creepie (n)—A low stool.

Crock (n)—A old ewe; also, an eathenware container; (v)—to kill; to croak;
draw crocks - to select older ewes for the purpose of forming groups.

Crouse (adj)—Self-satisfied, conceited, arrogant, proud; also, bold,
courageous, spirited, confident; also, cosy, comfortable.

Cruisie (n)—A lamp.

Cumber (v)—To impede; to burden.

Cupple (n) A roof-beam or rafter(?). Assumption based on a reference to
"rafters" in Chapter 14, Paragraph 1: "Mark Kerr's cast clothes had been hidden
at first in the gloom of the rafters in David's camceiled bedroom". There is
also a reference to cupple in General History of the Highlands The Living
Conditions in the Highlands Prior to 1745 (found at
Here we read: "Till the beginning of this (18th) century, all the heritors and
wadsetters (land- and mortage- holders) in this parish lived in houses composed
of cupple trees, and the walls and thatch made up of sod and divot... "

Cushat (n)—A wood-pigeon.

Cutty-stool, cuttie-stuil (n)—Stool of repentance; a seat in old Scottish
churches where offenders were made to sit for public rebuke by the minister;
also, a low stool.

Cyropaedia—A book by Xenophon. Cyropaedia is a political and philosophical
romance which describes the boyhood and training of Cyrus, King of Persia.It
contains the author's own ideas of training and education, derived both from
the teachings of Socrates and from his favourite Spartan institutions. It was
said to have been written in opposition to the Republic of Plato. A distinct
moral purpose, to which literal truth is sacrificed, runs through the work. For
instance, Cyrus is represented as dying peacefully in his bed, whereas,
according to Herodotus, he fell in a campaign against the Massagetae.

Dacent (adj)—Decent.

Dae (v)—To do.

Daer, doer (n)—A factor; an agent; a person who acts for another; a doer.

Daff (v)—To flirt; to play or fool around.

Dambrod (n)—A checker-board; a chess-board.

Damps (n)—Depression; dejection; cloud of the mind.

Dang (doun) (v)—To strike (down); to damn.

Daunder (n/v)—Stroll.

Daur (v)—To dare; to lurk; to crouch; to intimidate; daurna (v)—dare not.

Dear Years—"King William's dear years" a period of severe famine which lasted
seven years (1693-1700). A writer of the times says: "Those manifold, unheard-
of judgments continued seven years, not always alike, but the seasons, summer
and winter, so cold and barren, and the wonted heat of the sun so much
withholden, that it was discernible upon the cattle, flying fowls, and insects
decaying, that seldom a fly or cleg was to be seen; our harvests not in the
ordinary months; many shearing in November and December; yea, some in January
and February; many contracting their deaths, and losing the use of their feet
and hands shearing and working in frost and snow; and, after all, some of it
standing still and rotting upon the ground, and much of it for little use
either to man or beast, and which had no taste or colour of meal".

Deas (n)—A seat (often of stone or turf); a dais; a church desk; a pew; also,
a wooden seat used as a bed or a table.

Deave (v)—To deafen.

Deid (adj)—Dead ; deid-thraws (n) - death throes.

Deil (n)—The Devil.

Deil a haet (n)—Not a whit; not in the least; not at all.

Delate (v)—To denounce; to accuse; to inform against.

Delation (n)—An accusation by an informer; a denunciation.

Denner (n)—A dinner.

Denty (adj)—Dainty; (adv)—daintily.

De Sancti Pauli Epistolis—Concerning the Letters of St Paul.

Deus haec nobis otia fecit—God has given us this tranquility (Vergil, Ecloga I).

Differ (n)—A difference.

Ding (v)—To strike; to knock; to hit; also, to surpass.

Dirl (v)—To vibrate; to shake.

Distrackit, distractit (adj)— Distracted; distressed.

Dittay (n)—An indictment; the substance of the charge against a person accused
of a crime.

Ditton (n)—A motto.

Dizzen (n)—A dozen.

Dochter (n)—A daughter.

Doit (n)—A small copper coin.

Doited, dyted (adj)—Foolish; crazy; mixed-up.

Doo (n)—A dove.

Dook, jouk (v)—To duck.

Doomster, dempster, dempstar (n)—An officer of the court who pronounced doom
or sentence as directed by the clerk or judge.

Doorcheek (n)—The jamb or sidepiece of a door.

Doorstane (n)—A threshold; a flagstone in front a a threshold.

Doot (n/v)—Doubt.

Dominie (n)—A schoolmaster; a headmaster.

Dort (v), tak the dorts—To sulk.

Dott'rel (n)—A silly fellow; a moron; a dupe; a gull.

Douce (adj)—Decorous; neat; gentle; grave.

Dowg, dug (n)—A dog.

Dowie (adj)—Dismal; depressing; sad.

Downsetting, doun-setting (n)—A tenured position; an incumbency; a benefice;
an entitlement.

Dowp (n)—Buttocks, backside; bottom end; also, the bottom of an egg-shell.

Dozen (v)—To become confused; also: to become cold or numb.

Dragon (n)—A dragoon.

Drap (n/v)—Drop.

Dredgy, dredgie (n)—A funeral feast; a wake.

Dreich (adj)—Dreary; dull; tedious.

Drucken (adj)—Drunk; drunken.

Drugget (n)—A fabric woven wholly or partly of wool, formerly used for clothing.

Drumly, drumlie (adj)—Murky; muddy.

Duds (n)—Rags; clothes.

Dwaibly, dwaiblie (adj)—Feeble; weak; shaky; wobbly.

Dwam, dwaum (n)—A swoon; a fainting- spell; fit of sickness.

Dwine (v)—To waste away; to sicken; to languish.

Dyke (n)—A wall.

Earth-stopper (n)—A person hired by hunters to block the entrances to a fox's
earths. Here the term earth-stoppers is used to describe troops left to guard
places where fleeing enemy soldiers might try to hide.

Een (n)—Eyes.

E'en (n)—Even(ing); (adj)—even; (adv) - very well; guid e'en—good evening.

Eident, eydent (adj)—Diligent; industrious; careful; circumspect.

Elbuck (n)—An elbow.

Elf-bolt (n)—(also elf-arrow, elfer-stone and fairy-dart)—A name given to
flint arrow heads found in Britain. It was thought that these were fired by
elves at domestic animals.

Eneuch (adj/adv)—Enough.

Ensample (n)—An example.

Ettercap, attercup (n)—A spider.

Ettle (v)—To intend; to endeavour.

Excommunicat (adj)—Excommunicated.

Faither (n)—A father.

Fama (n)—A rumour; a report; repute; reputation (Latin).

Far ben (adj)—Very familiar; very intimate.

Fash (v)—To bother, annoy, irritate, trouble.

Fashious (adj)—Troublesome; annoying; vexing.

Fauld (n/v)—Fold.

Fause (adj)—False.

Faut (n/v)—Blame; fault.

Fecht (n/v)—Fight.

Feck (n)—Many; plenty; the feck o'—most of.

Feckless (adj)—Weak; powerless; incompetent; stupid.

Fee (n)—Wages; employment as a servant.

Fencing the tables (n)—A special talk delivered after the sermon in which a
preacher explains the meaning of the service and describes the type of people
who should be "at the Table of the Lord" (i.e., take communion) and who

Feud (n)—Strife; struggle; a feud: thole feud—to endure adversity.

Ferlie (n)—A marvel; a wonder.

Fernietickles (n)—Freckles.

Fickle (v)—To puzzle.

Fieldfare (n)—A small thrush (Turdus pilaris) which breeds in northern Europe
and winters in Great Britain.

Flee (v)—To fly; also, to flee.

Fley (v)—To scare, to frighten.

Flit (v)—To move house; to shift; to migrate.

Flitting (adj)—Fleet; swift-moving; (n) - the process of moving house.

Floorish (n)—Blossoms; blooms; flowers; (v) to flourish; to blossom; be in
flower; also, to embroider

Flowemoss, flow-moss (n)—A low-lying piece of watery land; also called flow-bog.

Flyte (v)—To scold; flytin' (n)—a scolding.

Forby(e) (prep)—Besides; apart from; except.

Forgie (v)—To forgive.

Forrit (adj/adv)—Forward.

Forwander (v)—To go astray; to get lost; to wander until weary.

Fosy, fozie (adj)—dull; stupid; also, soft; ragged; frayed.

Fou' (adj)—Full; drunk; (n)— saxifrage.

Foumart (n)—A ferret; a polecat.

Fower (n)—Four.

Frae (prep)—From.

Freit (n)—An omen; an augury; a supersition.

Fremd (adj)—Strange; alien; foreign.

Fricht (n/v)—Fright; to frighten.

Frieze (n)—A coarse, shaggy woolen cloth with an uncut nap.

Fuff (n)—A puff; also, a huff of rage.

Fule, fuil (n)—A fool.

Fushion (n)—Vigour; spirit; energy.

Fyle (v)—To foul.

Gait (n)—A path; a way; manner; a pace.

Gang (v)—To go.

Gangrel (n)—A vagrant; a tramp.

Gant, gaunt (v/n)—Yawn.

Gar (v)—To compel; to force; to make.

Garron, garran (n)—A gelding; a work horse; a hack

Gash (adj)—Lively; animated; also, shrewd; wise; sagacious; (v)—to prattle.

Gaun (pres p)—Going.

Gean (n)—The wild cherry.

Gear (n)—Possessions; belongings; wealth; also, equipment.

Geneva gown (n)—A loose black academic or clerical gown with wide sleeves.

Gentrice (n)—Gentry; gentility.

Gey (adv)—Very.

Gie (v)—To give.

Gillyflower (n)—The carnation or a similar plant of the genus Dianthus.

Gilpie (n)—A tomboy.

Gimmer (n)—A two-year-old ewe.

Gin (conj)—If; whether; (adv)—by; before.

Girdle (n)—A griddle; a circular iron plate for cooking.

Girn (v)—To snarl; to grimace; to complain; to grin; to whine; (n)—a noose, a

Girnel (n)—A granary; a silo; a meal-chest.

Glebe (n)—The land belonging, or yielding revenue, to a parish church or
ecclesiastical benefice.

Gled (n)—A hawk; a kite (bird); also, a gadfly; a horsefly; a missile.

Glee'd, gleyed (adj)—squint-eyed; cockeyed; mistaken.

Gleg (adj)—Alert; attentive; bright.

Glisk (n)—A glimpse.

Gloamin' (n)—The dusk; twilight.

Glower (n)—A frown; a glare.

Gopher wood (n)—The wood with which Noah was directed to build the ark. "Make
for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and
shall cover it inside and out with pitch"— Genesis 6:14. Shittim wood (n) - The
wood of the shittah-tree (Isaiah 41:19), which was employed in making the
various parts of the tabernacle in the wilderness. It was the acacia or mimosa
(Acacia Nilotica or A. seyal).

Gowd (n/adj)—Gold.

Gowk (n)—A cuckoo; a fool.

Grane, grain (v)—To groan.

Grape, graip(n)—A stick; a handle; a grip.

Graund (adj)—Fine; splendid; grand.

Greet (v)—To weep; to cry.

Grieve (n)—A foreman; an overseer.

Grippy, grippie (adj)—Mean; miserly; avaricious; grabby; devious; likely to

Grosart, groset (n) A gooseberry.

Guddle (v)—To grope; to tickle (trout).

Gudeman, guidman, (n)—A husband; a master.

Gude-sister, guid-sister (n)—A sister- in-law.

Gudesire, guidsir—(n)—A grandfather.

Guidit (pp of guide)—Managed; directed.

Guisyard, guisard (n)—A Halloween or Christmas mummer; a masquerader.

Gyte (adj)—Mad; crazy; insane.

Hadden down (adj)—Kept in place; curbed; weighed down; cut down to size (as in
the proverb "An ill wife and a new- kindled candle should hae their heads
hadden down.")

Haill, hail, (adj)—Whole.

Hairst (n)—Autumn; harvest.

Hallan, hallin (n)—A partition between a door and the fire place in a cottage;
an inner wall or partition, often forming a porch or passageway.

Hallowmass (n)—All Saints' Day, a feast day originally introduced by the
Catholic Church and celebrated on the 1st of November in honour of all the
saints, known or unknown. In the Roman Catholic Church it is a festival of the
first rank, with a vigil and an octave. Common commemorations, by several
churches, of the deaths of martyrs began to be celebrated in the 4th century...
So far as the Western Church generally is concerned, though the festival was
already widely celebrated in the days of Charlemagne, it was only made of
obligation throughout the Prankish empire in 835 by a decree of Louis the Pious
issued "at the instance of Pope Gregory IV. and with the assent of all the
bishops," which fixed its celebration on the 1st of November. The festival was
retained at the Reformation in the calendar of the Church of England, and also
in that of many of the Lutheran churches.

Hame (n/adv)—Home.

Hank (n)—A skein (of wool); a coil; also, influence; control; hesitation;
bleach your warst hanks in your ain yaird—don't wash your dirty linen in public.

Hank (v)—To snag; to entangle; to contrict; to delay.

Hantle (n)—A quantity; a number.

Harl (v)—To drag; to haul; to pull; (n)—an accumulation; (adj)—rough-cast.

Haud (v)—To hold; haud by—to keep to; to stay on.

Haugh, hauch (n)—Level ground, especially on the banks of a river; a riverside

Haver, haiver (n)—Nonsense; also, oats; (v) to talk nonsense.

Haverel, haiverel (n)—A half-wit.

Heid (n/v)—Head.

Hennyseed (n)—Aniseed.

Hellicat, hallockit, hallirackit (n) - A rowdy person; a hell-raiser; a good-
for-nothing; a shrewish woman; also, a fool; (adj) - rowdy, noisy, hoydenish;

Het (adj)—Hot.

Hinder, hinner (adj)—Latter; final; rear; (adv)—behind.

Hinderlands (n)—Backside; buttocks; hind end.

Hinny (n)—Honey.

Hirple (v)—To limp; to hobble.

Hirsel (n)—A piece of land with a flock of sheep, usually tended by one

Hoast (n/v)—Cough.

Hodden (n)—A coarse woolen cloth.

Hog-lamb, hogg-lamb (n)—A unweaned castrated lamb.

Homologate (v)—To approve; to endorse; to confirm; to ratify.

Hoose (n)—A house.

Hoots (an' toots) (interj)—An exclamation of surprise or exhortation.

Horn-book (n) - An early primer consisting of a single page protected by a
transparent sheet of horn, formerly used in teaching children to read; a text
that instructs in the basic skills or rudiments of a subject.

Hotch (v)—To fidget; to heave; to swarm with; also, to shake with laughter.

Hough (v)—To hamstring.

Howdie (n)—A midwife.

Howe (n)—A hollow; a low-lying field.

Howk (v)— To dig; howkit (pp)— Dug, digged.

Howm (n)—Variant of howe—a hollow; a low-lying field.

Hunkers (n)—Haunches.

Ibant obscuri sola sub nocte per umbram... — Darkling they went under the
lonely night through the shadow... (Vergil, The Aeneid, Book 6).

Ilka {adj)—Every.

Ill (adj)—Bad; evil.

Imprimis (adv)—In the first place; chiefly (Latin).

Incomer (n)—Stranger; immigrant; intruder.

Ingeminate (v)—To repeat; to reiterate.

Infield (n)—Arable and manured land kept continually under crop;—distinguished
from outfield.

Ingle (n)—Hearth, fire.

Intil (prep)—Inside; into.

Ither (n/adj)—Other.

Itur in antiquam silvam?—Does he walk into an ancient wood? (Vergil, The
Aeneid, Book 6).

Jalouse (v)—To guess; to surmise; to conjecture; to imagine.

Jaud (n)—A jade; a perverse or fickle woman; twa jauds o' birds—two crazy birds.

Jaw (n)—A gush or surge of water; (v)— to pour; to splash; to surge.

Jeely, jeelie (n)—Jelly; jam.

Jeuk, deuk (n)—A duck.

Jimp (adj)—Very little; hardly any.

Jo (n)—A sweetheart; a boyfriend.

Jouk (v)—To dodge; to duck; to avoid; Jouk and let the jaw go bye—to dodge the
bullet; to avoid trouble.

Kail, kale (n)—A soup; a cabbage; a colewort.

Kail-runt, kale-runt (n)—A cabbage- stalk.

Kail through the reek (v)—Retribution; deserved reproof or punishment.

Kail-worm, kaleworm (n)—A caterpillar.

Kail-yard, kale-yard (n)—A vegetable garden (lit. a cabbage garden).

Kain, kane (n)—Payment in kind; rent; a penalty; also a quantity of cheese.

Kebbuck, kebbock (n)—A cheese.

Keek (v)—To peep; to look.

Ken (v)—To know.

Kenspeckle (adj)—Conspicuous.

Kern (n)—A foot soldier.

Killing Time—1679-1688 A period of violent suppression when Covenanters were
either sent to America to serve as servants or summarily executed.

Kilt (v)—To tuck up.

Kimmer (n)—A gossip; a god-mother; a girl.

Kirkton, kirktoun (n)—A hamlet or village with a church.

Kirn (n)—A churn..

Kirtle (n)—A dress; (v)—to clothe; to dress.

Kist (n)—A chest; box; also chest in the anatomical sense.

Kittle (adj)—Ticklish; touchy; puzzling; perplexing; (v)—to tickle; to puzzle;
to perplex.

Kittling (n)—A kitten.

Knock (n)—A clock.

Knowe (n)—A knoll; a hillock.

Kye (n)—Cows; cattle.

Laich, laigh (adj)—Low.

Laird (n)—A lord; a landlord; a land-owner; bonnet-laird—a land-owner whose
estate was so small that he worked it himself as a farmer (the term bonnet
refers to his customary humble headdress).

Laith (adj)—Unwilling; loath.

Lameter (n)—A cripple.

Lammas (n)—A feast-day celebrated on August 1st. Lammas marked the start of
autumn and the harvest season. It probably began as a celebration of the Celtic
goddess Lugh but was absorbed into the church calendar as Loaf Mass Day. Lammas
takes its name from the Old English hlaf meaning loaf and maesse meaning feast.
The first cut of the harvest was made on Lammas Day and in some areas, its
first fruit—a loaf of bread—was given to the local cleric. Lammas was an annual
fair day in most parts of Scotland but by the end of the 20th century only the
Lammas Fairs at St Andrews and Kirkcaldy remained.

Landlouper (n)—A vagrant; a vagabond.

Landward, landart (adj)—Rustic; bucolic.

Lane (adj)—Solitary, foresaken; alone.

Lang (adj/adv)—Long.

Lap (v)—To wrap; lappit (adj/pp)—enfolded; tucked into.

Lapper (v)—To clot; to curdle; to coagulate; to freeze; lappered

Lauch (v)—To laugh.

Lave (n)—The remainder; the rest; everyone else; anyone else.

Lazarhouse (n)—A hospital for persons with infectious diseases (especially

Leaguer (n)—A camp, especially that of a besieging army; a siege.

Leal (adj)—Loyal.

Lear (n)—Knowledge, lore; printit lear - book-learning.

Leddy (n)—A lady; a laird's wife.

Lee (n/v)—Lie, fib; to live; a life.

Leear (n)—A liar.

Leein' (n)—Lying; fibbing.

Leeve, lee (v)—To live.

Leevin' (adj)—Living; live; alive.

Licht (n/adj)—Light.

Lick (v)—To lash; to beat.

Lift (n)—The sky.

Limmer (n)—A rogue; a rascal.

Linn (n)—A waterfall; a pool (beneath a waterfall); water-erosion.

Linsey-wolsey (n)—A fabric woven from a mixture of wool and flax; also, a
dress material of coarse inferior wool, woven on a cotton warp.

Lippen (v)—To trust; to depend on; to rely on; to heed.

Loan (n)—A lane; a track; a milking place; a common green.

Loon, loun (n)—A fellow; a rascal; a boy; a lad.

Losh! (interj)—Lord save us! An exclamation of wonder.

Loup, lowp (n/v)—Leap; jump; loupit (pp)—leaped, jumped.

Lowe (n)—A flame; a glow; a flash.

Lown, lownd (adj)—Calm, serene, still; soft.

Lowse (v)—To set loose; to release; to unleash; (adj)—free; unrestrained.

Lugs (n)—Ears.

Lum (n)—A chimney.

Luntin' (adj)—Smoking; smouldering.

Mailin' (n)—A farm; a small-holding.

Mair (adj/adv)—More.

Malignant (n)—An enemy (soldier); a foeman.

Manann (n)—The ancient Kingdom of Manann stretched from the River Forth, which
was its northern border, southwards to Slamanann Sometimes its northern border
pushed further north, as Clackmanann which retains the name of the ancient
kingdom, lies north of the River Forth. Although an ancient British Kingdom,
around the year 570 AD it was ruled by Aidan Mac Gabran (reputedly the father
of the legendary King Arthur). Immediately to the north of Manann were the
Pictish tribe known as the Maetae or Miathi.

Manibus date lilia plenis—Give lilies by the armful (Vergil, The Aeneid, Book

Manse (n)—A priest's house.

Marrow (n)—A partner; a companion.

Maud (n)—A grey plaid used by shepherds in Scotland.

Maukin (n)—A hare.

Maun (v)—Must.

Maut (n)—Malt; whisky. When the maut's abune the meal (or meat).—When the
amount of liquor consumed is more potent than the food eaten.

May', mayd. (n)—A girl; a maiden.

Meal-ark (n)—A box or bin for storing oatmeal.

Mell (n)—A heavy hammer.

Mense (n/v)—Honour; respect; sense.

Merk (n)—A mark; a 17th-century Scottish silver coin with a value of 2/3 of a
Pound Scots and worth just over a shilling of English money; land was often
valued in merks.

Merry-andrew (n) A clown; a buffoon.

Messan (dog) (n/adj)—Mongrel.

Micht (n/v)—Might; michty (adj)—mighty.

Mim (adj)—Prim; affected, sedate.

Mind o' (v)—To remember; to think of.

Mirk (n)—Darkness; the dark.

Mither (n)—A mother.

Moderator (n)—The officer who presides over a synod or general assembly of the
Presbyterian Church.

Mools (n)—Soil; earth; mould.

Moss (n)—A bog; moorland.

Moss-trooper (n)—A plunderer; a marauder; one of a band of raiders operating
in the bogs on the borders of England and Scotland during the 17th century.

Mou' (n/v)—Mouth.

Muckle (adj)—Large; big; much.

Muir (n)—A moor.

Muirfowl (n), moor-fowl—A red grouse.

Mune, muin (n)—The moon.

Muniment room (n)—A room used for archiving records, charters, seals, deeds,
and the like.

Mutch (n)—A cap.

Mutchkin—A Scots pint.

Nae (adj/adv/interj)—No; none; not. The Scots negative is sometimes formed by
adding the suffix na or nae to the verb, e.g. dinna—do not; canna—cannot.

Neb (n)—A nose.

Needcessity, needcessitie (n)— Necessity.

Neist (adj/adv)—Next; next to.

Nesty, nestie (adj)—Nasty.

Nettie-wife (n)—A female harvest worker (?), perhaps equipped with a carrying

Nicht (n)—A night.

Nieve (n)—A fist; nievefu' (n)— a fistful.

Niffer (n)—A bargain; barter; exchange.

Nocht (n)—Nought; nothing.

Norroway (n)—Norway.

Nowt (n)—Cattle; oxen; bullock(s).

Nozzle (n/v)—Nuzzle.

Ony, onie (adj)—Any.

Or (adv)—Before.

Ordinar (adj)—Ordinary.

Ordinary (n)—1. A dining room or eating house where a meal is prepared for all
comers at a fixed price; also, the meal served at such a dining room. 2. The
part of a church service which is the same every day.

Orra (adj)—Odd; idle; also, low.

Out (v)—To oust; to remove from office; to expel.

Outby(e), ootby(e)—(adv)— outside.

Outfield (n)—Arable land which has been or is being exhausted.

Owercome (n)—A tradition; a traditional saying or adage.

Oxter (n)—An armpit.

Oy, oye (n)—A grandson; a granddaughter; sometimes—a niece.

Packman (n)—An itinerant merchant.

Paik (n)—Beating; punishment; (v)—to beat.

Parochine (n)—A parish

Parritch (n)—Porridge.

Pat (n)—A pot.

Pawky (adj)—Astute; roguish; also, of humorous outlook; (n)—a mitten.

Peery, peerie (n)—A spinning-top; also, a fir-cone.

Peesweep, peewee (n)—A lapwing.

Peety (n/v)—Pity.

Peewit, pewit (n)—Large crested plover having wattles and spurs.

Penny Bridal (n)—A wild party for newly-weds. These festivities, also known as
Silver Bridals or Penny Weddings, were renowned for feasting, drinking, dancing
and fighting. Gifts were made to the newly-weds towards the cost of the wedding
feast.The wild celebrations started on the eve of the wedding with singing,
toasts and the ceremony of feet- washing.

Penny-royal (n)—A Eurasian mint (Mentha pulegium) having small lilac-blue
flowers and ovate or nearly orbicular leaves that yield a useful, aromatic oil.

Perque domos Ditis vacuas et inania regna, quale per incertam lunam... —And
through the empty dwellings and unsubstantial realms of Hades, as through
uncertain moonlight... (Vergil, The Aeneid, Book 6).

Phylactery (n)—Any charm or amulet worn to ward off danger or disease;
specifically—either of two small leather boxes, each containing strips of
parchment inscribed with quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures, one of which is
strapped to the forehead and the other to the left arm; traditionally worn by
Jewish men during morning worship, except on the Sabbath and holidays.

Pit (v)—To put.

Pizzle (n); A penis; a whip made from a bull's penis.

Plack (n)—A small coin; worldly possessions; wealth.

Plenishings (n)—Household goods, furnishings; personal property.

Plew-stilt (n)—A plough-handle.

Poo'er, pouer (n)—Power.

Port (n)—A billet; a posting.

Poutry, poutrie (n)—Poultry.

Pouther, pouder (n)—Powder; gun- powder.

Pow, powe (n)—A head; a poll; also, a slow-moving stream; a pool.

Pownie, powny (n)—A pony.

Preen (n)—A pin.

Prent (n/v)—Print.

Presbytery (n)—A court composed of Presbyterian Church ministers and
representative elders of a particular locality; the district represented by
this court.

Press-bed (n)—A closet; a clothes-press; a wardrobe.

Pricker (n)—A pricker of witches, i.e., a person who professed to ascertain,
by inserting pins into a woman's flesh, whether she was truly a witch, the
affirmative being given when he pricked a place insensible to pain.

Prie, pree (v)—To taste; to take.

Provost (n)—A person who is appointed to superintend, or preside over,
something; the chief magistrate in some cities and towns; as, the provost of
Edinburgh or of Glasgow, corresponding to the mayor of other cities; the
provost of a college, corresponding to president; the provost or head of
certain collegiate churches.

Puddock (n)—A frog; a toad.

Put to the horn—To outlaw.

Pyke, pike (v)—To pick; also, to steal; to pilfer.Hae a crow to pyke—to have a
bone to pick.

Pyot (n)—A magpie; also, an irresponsible person; a flibbertigibbet

Quean (n)—A girl, a young woman.

Quicquid delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi— The people pay the price for the
foolish acts of kings.(Horace, Letters, Book I, Letter II).

Ramp (v)—To rear-up; to romp; to climb (said pf plants).

Ramping (adj)—Rampant.

Randan (n)—A booze-up; a pub-crawl.

Randie, randy (n)—A beggar; a loose- tongued woman; a virago; (adj)—agressive;

Randyvoo (n)—A rendez-vous.

Rasp (n)—A raspberry.

Rattan, ratton (n)—A rat.

Rax (v)—To stetch; to pass; to reach.

Red, redd (v)—To arrange; to settle; also, to get rid of; to separate; to free.

Redder (n)—A person who arranges or settles something; a facilitator; a
trouble-shooter; a liberator. Redder's straik or redding straik - A blow
received by a peacemaker who interferes between two combatants to red or
separate them; proverbially, the severest blow a man can receive. “Said I not
to ye, 'Make not, meddle not;' beware of the redding-straik?”- Sir W. Scott:
Guy Mannering, Chap. XXVII).

Redding (n)—Handling; dealing; clearance; riddance.

Rede (v)—To advise; to counsel.

Reek (n/v)—Smoke.

Reive ( v)—To rob; to plunder; to pillage; to despoil; to deprive; to steal.

Rickle (n)—A loose heap; a skeleton.

Richt (adj)—Right.

Riggin' (n)—A ridge; a roof; roofing

Rin (v)—To run.

Rive (v)—To tear; to rip.

Riven (adj)—Torn.

Riddle (v)—To separate, as grain from chaff, with a riddle (sieve); to pass
through a riddle; to shake things up.

Riddling (n)—A shake-up; a purge; the act of using a riddle.

Riddlings (n)—Outcasts; dregs (?)

Rouk, rowk (n)—Fog; mist.

Roup, rowp (v)—To auction off; also, to plunder; to rob.

Rout, rowt (v)—To roar; to bellow; to yell.

Rudas (adj)—Old and haggard; rudas wives - old crones.

Rue {n)—Any of various aromatic southwest Asian or Mediterranean plants of the
genus Ruta, especially the ornamental Ruta graveolens, the leaves of which
yield an acrid volatile oil formerly used in medicine.

Ruffler—A teller of tales; a beggar who earns money by telling tales of
heroism in war.

Run-rig, runrig (n/adj). A land-allocation system used for farming in Scotland
before the crofting system. A "rig" is a strip of farmland and a "run" is a
group of those strips. The land was held by clans and distributed to clansmen
in a "runrig" system of widely-dispersed holdings. This system was to a large
extent communal, but the focus was upon the clan. With the decline of the clan
system, the community became more geographically oriented. The primary
difference between crofting and the runrig system is that in crofting,
individual holdings are consolidated. With the Crofters Holdings Act of 1886,
crofting areas were defined, and assurance was given of security of tenure,
hereditary succession, and fair rent.

Rynge, reenge (n)—Range; (v) to pace about, to range.

Rype, ripe (v)—To search; to examine; to ransack; to rifle; also, to clean.

Saft (adj)—Soft; gentle.

Sair (adj)—Hard, difficult, sore, wearisome; very.

Salve, o venusta Sirmio—Hail, o fair Sirmio (Catullus, Song 31 ). Sirmio is a
small town on Lake Garda, Italy, where the poet Catullus had a luxurious summer

Sancti Clementi Opera—The Works of Saint Clement.

Sark (n)—A shirt.

Sasine (n)—A seisin; (a document attesting to) the legal possession of
heritable freehold land; also, property thus possessed.

Saugh, sauch (n)—A willow-tree; a willow (broom)stick; (adj) sallow.

Saunt (n)—A saint.

Saut (n)—Salt.

Saw(e) (v)—To sow.

Scaith, skaith (n)—Harm; damage.

Scart (n/v)—Scratch; scartit (adj)—scratched.

Scaur (n)—A steep rock, a precipice; a scar; (v) - to scare.

Schule, schuil (n)—A school.

Sclaff (n)—A stroke; a slap; (v)—to strike (as with the open hand).

Scunner (n)—Dislike; detestation; disgust.

Screed (n)—A long speech or piece of writing.

Scribin, scrievin (n)—Writing; a letter.

Seam (n)—Needlework; a seam; a task; a parting (of hair); also, a row of
(artificial) teeth.

Sea-maw (n) A seagull.

Sectary (n)—A sectarian; here, one of a party in religion which has separated
itself from established church, or which holds tenets different from those of
the prevailing denomination.

Sederunt, sederount (n)—A session of a committee, a court or other body; also,
the attendance list of such a meeting.

Seeck, seek (adj)—Sick; ill.

Seisin (n)—Ownership; possession; take seisin—to take possession. See also

Se'nnight (n)—A week (seven nights).

Sequester (v)—To requisition; to confiscate.

Shaw (n)—A copse; a wooded dell; a woodland area.

Sheltie, shelty {n}—A Shetland pony.

Sheiling (n)—A hut or small cottage such as is used by shepherds, fishermen,
sportsmen, etc.; a summer cottage; also, a shed; also a high summer pasture.

Shew-bread (n)—Bread of exhibition; loaves of unleavened bread set before God;
the term the term denotes the 12 loaves of bread which the priest of the week
placed before the Lord on the golden table in the sanctuary. They were made of
fine flour, and were changed every Sabbath. The loaves represented the twelve
tribes of Israel. They were to be eaten by the priests only, and in the Holy

Shilpit (adj)—Pale; sickly; weak; puny; shrunken.

Shirra(e) (n)—A sheriff.

Shoulther, shouder (n/v))—Shoulder.

Sic (adj)—Such.

Siccan (adj)—Such; so much.

Siccar (adj)—Sure; certain; safe.

Sicht (n)—Sight.

Siller (n)—Money, silver.

Silva Caledonis—The Wood of Caledon. The site in Scotland of a major battle
between the legendary King Arthur and the Saxons.

Simmer (n/adj)—Summer.

Sindry (n/adj)—Sundry.

Sixteen Drifty Days—A sixteen-day period of relentless snowfall and blizzards
which decimated the region's livestock.

Skail (v)—To spill; to scatter; to disperse.

Skellie (v)—To squint; (adj)— squinting; (n)—a squint; a sideways glance;
also, a ridge of rock in a tidal zone.

Skelloch (n/v)—Scream; also (n)—wild mustard.

Skelp (v)—To run; to dash; to sprint; (n)—a blow; a slap.

Skilly (adj)—Skillful.

Skreigh, screich (n)—A screech; skreigh o' day—daybreak.

Slocken (v)—To wetten; to moisten; to quench or slake (a thirst); to put out
(a fire).

Smeddum (n)—(Fighting) spirit; energy, mettle; sense.

Smit, smittal (n)—A smidgen; an attack (of a sickness); also, a spot; a stain.

Smoor, smuir (v)—To smother, to suffocate, to choke.

Snaw (n)—Snow.

Sned (v)—To cut; to lop off; to prune.

Snell (adj)—Swift; fast.

Snowk (v)—To sniff; to smell.

Snuffy (adj)—Sulky; irritable; vexed; irascible.

Sodger (n)—A soldier.

Soo, sou (n)—A sow; a pig; (v)— to ache; to inflict pain.

Soop (v)—To sweep.

Soorock (n)—Sorrel.

Sorrow (adj)—Not a single; nary.

Sough (n) A (light) breeze; a sigh; (v) to sough; to sigh.

Sortes Virgilianae (or Homericae) (Latin)—Virgilian or Homeric lots. A form of
divination which consisted in taking the first passage on which the eye fell,
upon opening a volume of Virgil or Homer, or a passage drawn from an urn in
which several were deposited, as indicating future events, or the proper course
to be pursued. In later times the Bible was used for the same purpose by
Christians. The passage quoted here (Manibus date lilia plenis—Give lilies by
the armful) was interpreted as predicting an early death.

Sowans, sowens (n)—Oat husks and meal steeped in water.

Spain, spean (v)—To wean, to suckle; (n) - a suckling animal.

Spate (n)—A sudden flood; a heavy downpour; also, tears.

Speel (v)—To climb; to play.

Speir (v)—To ask; to inquire.

Spence (n)—A parlour, especially in a cottage; also, a pantry or larder.

Spleuchan (n)—A leather pouch.

Staig (n)—A stallion; also, a stalk.

Stane (n/adj)—Stone.

Stap (v)—To cram; to stuff; to stab.

Staw (v)—To sicken; to turn one's stomach.

Stawsome (adj)—Sickening; nauseating.

Steek (v)—To shut, to close; also, to stitch; steekit (adj/pp)—closed; locked.

Steer (n)—A commotion; a stir; a state of unrest; get in a steer—to get worked

Stench (adj)—Staunch; stench lees—bold or convincing lies.

Stickit (adj)—Stuck; spoiled in the making; stickit minister—a candidate for
the preisthood who is rejected because of incompetency or immorality.

Stirrin', steerin' (adj)—Restless; mischievous.

Stotter (v)—To stagger; to stumble; to rebound.

Stound, stoond (n)—A throb, an ache; an upsurge; (v)—to astound.

Stoup (n)—A tankard; a liquid measure.

Stour (n)—Dust; gar the stour fly—to make the dust fly.

Strae (n)—A straw.

Straik, strake (n)—A blow, a stroke; a spear; (v)—to strike; to spread; a maur
straik - a harder blow.

Stramash (n)—An uproar; an upheaval.

Straucht (adj)—Straight.

Strauchten (v)—To lay out (as a corpse); to straighten; to arrange.

Stravaige (v)—To roam; to wander; to gallivant.

Suld, sud (v)—Should, ought to.

Sune (adv)—Soon.

Swatch (n)—A glimpse; a look.

Sweir (adj)—Unwilling; reluctant; (v)— to swear.

Swird, swuird (n)—A sword.

Tack (n)—A lease; a tenancy; a period of time.

Tacksman (n)—A tenant; a lessee.

Tae (n)—A toe.

Tawpie, taupie (adj)—Idle; foolish; giddy; also, awkward.

Teetotum (n)—A four-sided spinning top used for playing games of chance, one
side having the letter T on it, standing for Latin totum (all), meaning, take
all that is staked, whence the name. The other three sides each had a letter
indicating an English or Latin word; as P meaning put down, N nothing, H half.
also, a child's toy, similar to a top and twirled by the fingers.

Teind (n)—A tithe; a tenth part.

Tent (n)—Attention; notice; tak' tent - to pay attention.

Teugh, teuch (adj)—Tough.

Thack (n)—Thatch.

Thackless (adj)—Unthatched.

Thereanent (adv)—Concerning this.

The morn (n)—Tomorrow.

Thirl (v)—To bind (to); to thrill.

Thocht (n/pp)—Thought.

Thole (v)—To suffer; to endure or put up with something, particularly when
there is no alternative.

Thrang (adj)—Busy; (n)—a throng.

Thrapple (n)—Throat; windpipe; (v)—to throttle.

Thraw (v)—To throw; to twist.

Threip, threap (v)—To insist; to assert dogmatically.

Thresh (n/v)—Flail; thrash.

Thretty, thrittie (n)—Thirty.

Thrissle (n)—A thistle.

Throstle (n)—A song-thrush.

Through-ither (adj)—Confused; scatter- brained.

Tinkler (n)—A tinker.

Tint (adj)—Lost.

Tirrivee (n)—A rage; a tantrum; (a state of) excitement.

Tod (n)—A fox.

Tolbooth, towebuith (n)—A town jail; a town hall; a tax office; a toll-booth.

Toom, tuim (adj)—Empty.

Toun (n)—A town; also, a farm-house.

Tow(e) (n)—A rope; flax.

Tram (n)—The shaft of a barrow or cart; an upright gallows post. Hae your leg
ower the trams—To be over- zealous; to go too far.

Trauchle (v)—To trudge; to be burdened by.

Trokin' (n)—Trade; barter; business; merchandise; also, trash, From troke
(v)—to barter, to trade.

Trow, trowe (v)—To trust; to believe.

Trysted, trystit (adj)—Bespoken; reserved; on order.

Tuilzie (n)—A fight; a struggle.

Tup, tuip (n)—A ram.

Twa (n)—Two.

Twal (n)—Twelve.

Twine (v)—To separate; to part.

Tyke, tike (n)—A dog; a cur; a mongrel.

Unco (adj/adv)—Very; uncommon; strange; extremely.

Uncoly (adv)—Very much.

Unkenned (adv)—Unknown.

Unplewed (adj)—Unploughed; fallow.

Unraxed (adj)—Unstretched.

Upbye, upby (adv)—Upstairs; up there; (n) - Heaven.

Upsides (adj/adv)—On an equal footing; level; get upsides with—to get the
better of; to defeat.

Usquebagh (n)—Whisky (Galeic).

Verra (adj/adv)—Very.

Wabster (n)—A weaver; also, a spider.

Wad (v)—Would; also, to wed; to bet; to wager; (pp)—wedded.

Wae (n)—Woe; wae's me!—woe is me!

Waft (n)—Weave; weft; (v)—to trounce; to out-manoeuvre.

Wale (v)—To choose; to select.

Walth (n)—Wealth.

Wame, wyme (n)—Belly; womb

Wanchancie, unchancie (adj)— inauspicious; unlucky; ill-omened; ill-fated;
risky; threatening; treacherous.

Wark (n/v)—Work.

Warld (n)—The world; wardly (adj)—worldly.

Warst (adj)—Worst.

Wastry, wastrie (n)—Extravagance; wastefulness.

Wauf, wauch (adj)—Unsavoury; unpleasant; worthless; also, unwell; faint; weary.

Wauken (v)—To wake up; to awaken.

Waukrife (adj)—Wakeful; sleepless; watchful.

Waur (adj)—Worse.

Wean (n)—A child; a baby.

Wecht (n)—A weight; (v)—to weigh.

Wedder, wether (n)—A castrated adult male sheep.

Weel-a-weel (interj)—Very well; all right.

Wersh (adj)—Poor (of soil); tasteless (of food or drink); insipid; cooked
without salt.

Weskit (n)—Waistcoat.

Wha (pron)—Who.

Whaup (n)—A curlew.

Whaur (adv)—Where.

Wheen (n)—A number (of); a few; (adj)— several.

Wheesht (interj)—Silence! Hush!

Whiles, files (adv)—Sometimes.

Whilk (pron)—Which.

Whinge (v)—To whine.

Whinstone (n)—Any of various hard, dark- colored rocks, especially basalt and

Widdershins (adv)—counter-clockwise; topsy- turvy; the wrong way.

Wile (v)—To entice; to decoy; to deceive.

Win forth (v)—To leave; to depart.

Windy (n)—A window.

Wirriecow, warriecow (n) A hobgoblin; the Devil; a mischievous person.

Wrang (adj)—Wrong.

Wud (n)—Wood.

Wuddy, widdie (n)—A hangman's rope; also, a twig of tough, flexible wood.

Wullcat (n)—A wildcat.

Wund (n)—A wind; a wound.

Wyse, wice (v)—To direct; to show; to guide; to coax; to induce; (adj)—wise.

Wyte (noun)—Blame; (v)—To blame; to accuse.

Yauld (adj)—Vigorous; active.

Yawp, yaup (n/v)—Howl; yelp; bawl; (adj) - hungry.

Yestereen (n/adv)—Last night.

Yett (n)—A gate.

Yill (n)—Ale.

Yirth, yird (n)—Earth.

Yoke-fellow (n)—A companion.

Yowe (n)—A ewe.